Sunday, 28 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 98. Holding Back the Years. Vocabulary

- Hold back:
hold sb/sth back
1. to prevent sb/sth from moving forward or crossing sth:
The police were unable to hold back the crowd.
2. to prevent the progress or development of sb/sth. Frenar:
Do you think that mixed ability classes hold back the better students?

- Stiff: (MUSCLES)when a person is stiff, their muscles hurt when they move them:
I’m really stiff after that bike ride yesterday. I’ve got a stiff neck. Entumecido, agarrotado
- Joint: articulación
- Lift: (HAPPIER FEELING) a feeling of being happier or more confident than before. Impulso
SYN boost:
Passing the exam gave him a real lift
- detox noun [U] (informal) [ˌdiːˈtɒks] [ˈdiːtɒks] the process of removing harmful substances from your body by only eating and drinking particular things
- The blues: feelings of sadness:
the Monday morning blues. La depre
- Sharpen: if a sense or feeling sharpens or sth sharpens it, it becomes stronger and/or clearer:
The sea air sharpened our appetites.
- work wonders: to achieve very good results:
Her new diet and exercise programme has worked wonders for her.
- before / in front of sb’s (very) eyes: in sb’s presence; in front of sb:
He had seen his life’s work destroyed before his very eyes.
- marked adjective. Easy to see
SYN noticeable, distinct. Acusado, marcado:
A marked difference / improvement. A marked increase in profits. She is quiet and studious, in marked contrast to her sister.
- Scalp: cuero cabelludo

Tuesday, 23 February 2010

All, Every, Each

Here you have an exercise
Here and here you will find some explanations

All is used when you are thinking of a collection as a whole rather than its individual items.

Every is used to refer to each individual item.

It is often a difference in form more than in meaning. For example, all of us means the same thing as every one of us.

All can be a pronoun all by itself, whereas every cannot. Example:
All is well.
However, we use everyone/everything rather than all by itself
Everyone laughed at his jokes
Everything was a mess

We sometimes use all after the noun it refers to:
- His songs all sound much the same to me.
Or:
- All of his songs sound…

- We all think Ann’s working too hard.
Or:
- All of us think…

Notice that we usually put all after the verb be and after the first auxiliary verb:
They are all tired.
You should all get a pen to answer the questions.

We use all to make very general statements:
All cars have breaks
All students must wear uniforms
All information is confidential

We use all (of) before determiners plus nouns to make more specific statements
All (of) these cars are for sale
All (of) the information you asked for is on our web site


Before singular countable nouns we usually use the whole rather than all the:
They weren’t able to stay for the whole concert ( rather than…for all the concert)

Often we can use every or each with little difference in meaning.

Every means all things or people in a group of three or more.

We use every when we talk about something happening at regular intervals:
Every single day
Every so often
Every now and again (occasionally)
There’s a bus every ten minutes
Take two tablets every four hours

We use every when we want to emphasize “as many/much as possible” with nouns such as possibility, chance, reason, success.
She has every chance of success in her application for the job
He had every opportunity to complete the work.
We wish you every success in your new job

We use every after virtually, almost, nearly...to emphasise we are talking about a group as a whole:
His team lost almost every game
We run nearly every day

We use each when we are talking about two or more things:
I only had two suitcases, but each one weighed over 20 kilos.

We use each as a pronoun:
I asked many people and each gave the same answer.

We use each of (not every of) before determiners with plural nouns:
Each of her cars was a different colour

We use each of before plural pronouns:
Each of you must work alone



Here you will find more explanations

Thursday, 18 February 2010

Remembering J.D. Salinger

American writer J.D. Salinger, perhaps best known for his work "Catcher in the Rye," died in Jan 2010. Forum examines Salinger's life and literary legacy.

Order of Adjectives



You can check this site or this other site for an explanation and exercises.
As you will see, in one site the order we get is SIZE+AGE+SHAPE and in the other site SIZE+SHAPE+AGE.
Here you have a summary. Note that this is the normal order, but it is not the only possible order:
1. Opinion: excellent, lovely, ugly...
2. Size: big, huge, long, tiny,..
3. Physical quality: dry, wet, hard, soft, hot, cold, light, heavy,..
4. Age: New, old, recent, young,..
5. Shape: circular, round, spiky, square,..
6. Colour: green, pink,..
7. Location: distant, indoor, southern, west,...
8. Origin: African, Victorian, Muslim,..
9. Material: leather, metal, nylon, plastic, wooden,..
10. Type: economic, medical, scientific
11. Purpose: camping, running, swimming...

Examples:
1. It's southern French style
2. We found a Victorian medical text.
3. I hate nylon running shorts.
4. I loved that old green sofa with the lovely round seats and the big soft cushions.

Sunday, 14 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 95. Vocabulary.

Misread:
1. To understand somebody/something wrongly. Misinterpret. E.g. I'm afraid I completely misread the situation. His confidence was misread as arrogance.
2. To read something wrongly. E.g. You must have misread the address.

Outnumber: to be greater in number than somebody/something. E.g. The demonstrators were heavily outnumbered by the police.

Rehear: to hear or consider again a case in court.

Overhear: to hear, especially by accident, a conversation in which you are not involved. E.g. We talked quietly so as not to be overheard. I overheard him say he was going to France.

Mishear: To fail to hear correctly what somebody says, so that you think they said something else. E.g. You may have misheard her—I'm sure she didn't mean that.

Disused: No longer used. E.g. a disused station

Unused: not being used at the moment or never having been used. E.g. The house was left unused for most of the year.

Outlive: to live longer than somebody. E.g. He outlived his wife by three years.

Saturday, 13 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 94. The Subjunctive. Extra Grammar

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv201.shtml

Ready for CAE p 94. Vocabulary

Urge:
1. To advise or try hard to persuade somebody to do something.
- Urge somebody to do something. E.g. She urged him to stay. Police are urging anyone who saw the accident to contact them immediately.
- Urge that… E.g. The report urged that all children be taught to swim.
- Urge (somebody) + speech ‘Why not give it a try?’ she urged (him).

Reassure: to say or do something that makes somebody less frightened or worried. Set somebody's mind at rest. Tranquilizar. E.g. They tried to reassure her, but she still felt anxious. The doctor reassured him that there was nothing seriously wrong.

Concede: Admit that something is true. Reconocer. He was forced to concede (that) there might be difficulties. It must be conceded that different judges have different approaches to these cases.

Proceeds: (pl)Profits. Recaudación. E.g. The proceeds of the concert will go to charity.

Board: a group of people who have power to make decisions and control a company or other organization. Junta directiva. E.g. She has a seat on the board of directors.

Reinstate: To give back a job or position that had been taken away from somebody. Readmitir. E.g. He was reinstated in his post.

Friday, 12 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 93. Multiple Choice Listening. Vocabulary

Ready for CAE p 93. Multiple Choice Listening. Vocabulary
- Botox: [ˈbəʊ tɒks]
- Botulism: [ˈbɒtjuˌlɪzəm]
- Surgery: 1. medical treatment of injuries or diseases that involves cutting open a person’s body. 2. a place where a doctor, dentist or vet sees patients:
a doctor’s / dentist’s surgery
- Give up time: to spend time on a task that you would normally spend on sth else:
I gave up my weekend to help him paint his apartment.
- Wear off: to gradually disappear or stop:
The effects of the drug will soon wear off
- Bruising: having a bruise. She suffered severe bruising, but no bones were broken.
- an outside chance (= a very small one). They have only an outside chance of winning
- fluey: griposo
- at that: además. Used when you are giving an extra piece of information:
He managed to buy a car after all—and a nice one at that.
- Frown: [fraʊn] a serious, angry or worried expression on a person’s face that causes lines on their forehead:
She looked up with a puzzled frown on her face. A slight frown of disapproval / concentration, etc.
- Faint: that cannot be clearly seen, heard or smelt. Very small.
- Gracefully: elegantemente
- Baulk: [bɔːk] [bɔːlk] baulk at: mostrarse reacio. Be unwilling. Baulk at the price.
- drain sb/sth (of sth) to make sb/sth weaker, poorer, etc. by using up their/its strength, money, etc.:
My mother’s hospital expenses were slowly draining my income. I felt drained of energy. An exhausting and draining experience (agotador)
- twenty-odd: approximately, a little more than twenty.
- not by any stretch of the imagination | by no stretch of the imagination: used to say strongly that sth is not true, even if you try to imagine or believe it:
She could not, by any stretch of the imagination, be called beautiful

Thursday, 11 February 2010

Ready for CAE Ss p 91. Virtual Doctors. Vocabulary

- Fall ill

- Come out in sth: to become covered in spots, etc. on the skin: Hot weather makes her come out in a rash.

- Symptoms

- Mild: not severe or strong: A mild form of the disease. Use a soap that is mild on the skin

- Shingles: a disease that affects the nerves and produces a band of painful spots on the skin (herpes Zóster, culebrilla).

- Cleanse:[ klenz] to clean your skin or a wound:
a cleansing cream

- Analgesic: [ˌænəlˈdʒiːzɪk]: a substance that reduces pain.
SYN painkiller. Aspirin is a mild analgesic.

- Consultation:[ˌkɒnsəlˈteɪʃ ən] a meeting with an expert, especially a doctor, to get advice or treatment

- Range (from A to B) to include a variety of different things in addition to those mentioned: She has had a number of different jobs, ranging from chef to swimming instructor. The conversation ranged widely (= covered a lot of different topics).

- Meet (a demand): to do or satisfy what is needed or what sb asks for
SYN fulfil.
How can we best meet the needs of all the different groups? Until these conditions are met we cannot proceed with the sale. I can’t possibly meet that deadline.

- Complaint: an illness, especially one that is not serious, and often one that affects a particular part of the body:
A skin complaint.

- Come up with: to find or produce an answer, a sum of money, etc.:
She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. How soon can you come up with the money?

- Contract: to get an illness: To contract AIDS / a virus / a disease.

- Provide sb (with sth) provide sth (for sb): to give sth to sb or make it available for them to use. The hospital has a commitment to provide the best possible medical care. We are here to provide a service for the public. We are here to provide the public with a service.

- point to sth: to mention sth that you think is important and/or the reason why a particular situation exists:
The board of directors pointed to falling productivity to justify their decision.

Wednesday, 10 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 88. Reading. Feeling Good. Vocabulary

ATTENTION ALL STUDENTS

to carry out: to do or complete something, especially that you have said you would do or that you have been told to do.

range: a set of similar things.

to aim at: to plan, hope or intend to achieve something.

to be willing: to be happy to do something if it is needed.

trial: a test, usually over a limited period of time, to discover how effective or suitable something or someone is.

to ascertain: to discover; to make certain.

Blood pressure: a measure of the pressure at which the blood flows through the body.

To undergo: to experience something which is unpleasant or which involves a change.

Thorough: detailed and careful.

To attend: to go to an event, place, etc.

Compulsory: If something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law.

To set up: to formally establish a new company, organization, system, way of working, etc.

Records: information about someone or something which is stored by the police or by a doctor.

Side effects: an unpleasant effect of a drug that happens in addition to the main effect.

Mild: not violent, severe or extreme.

Severe: causing very great pain, difficulty, anxiety, damage, etc.; very serious.

To seek – sought – sought: to look for.

Outcome: result.

EXTRACT FROM A MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Blinding: extremely painful.

To crash: to stop operating.

To get round to: to do something that you have intended to do for a long time.

To pass on: to give someone something that another person has given you.

To relieve: to provide relief for a bad situation or for people in need.

Strain: when you feel nervous and worried about something.

To stretch: to (cause an elastic material to) become longer or wider than usual as a result of pulling at the edges.

Limb: an arm or leg of a person or animal, or a large branch of a tree.

To be taken aback: to be surprised or shocked so much that you do not know how to behave for a short time.

Dough: flour mixed with water and often yeast, fat or sugar so that it is ready for baking.

To knead: flour mixed with water and often yeast, fat or sugar so that it is ready for baking.

Eerie: strange in a frightening and mysterious way.

at ease: relaxed.

To ease off: to gradually stop or become less; to start to work less or do things with less energy.

To put down to: to attribute.

EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

To tilt: to (cause to) move into a sloping position.

To peer: to look carefully or with difficulty.

Matchstick: the short wooden stick of a match, or the match itself.

Undergrowth: a mass of bushes, small trees and plants growing under the trees of a wood or forest.

Stiff: not easily bent or moved; firm or hard; If you are stiff or part of your body is stiff, your muscles hurt when they are moved.

To scrape: to remove an unwanted covering or a top layer from something, especially using a sharp edge or something rough.

Cankerous: not in or exhibiting good health in body or mind. Having an ulcer or canker.

Coating: To coat: to cover something with a layer of a particular substance.

To behold: to see or look at.

Wrinkled: with a lot of wrinkles; wrinkle: If skin or material wrinkles, or if something wrinkles it, it gets small lines or folds in it.

Toddler: a young child, especially one who is learning or has recently learned to walk.

Gnarled: rough and twisted, especially because of old age or a lack of protection from bad weather.

Stoop: when someone stands or walks with their head and shoulders bent slightly forwards and down.

Overmeasure: Excessive measure; the excess beyond true or proper measure; surplus.

Aural: related to hearing.

Bowl: a round container that is open at the top and is deep enough to hold fruit, sugar, etc., or the rounded inside part of something.

To cram into: to force a lot of things into a small space, or to do many things in a short period of time.

To chuckle: to laugh quietly.

To purse one’s lips: to bring your lips tightly together so that they form a rounded shape, usually as an expression of disapproval.

To fold: to bend something, especially paper or cloth, so that one part of it lies on the other part, or to be able to be bent in this way.

Wednesday, 3 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 83. Vocabulary

Be taken aback (by sb/sth): to be shocked or surprised by sb/sth: e.g. she was completely taken aback by his anger.
Do up: to repair and decorate a house, etc.: e.g. he makes money by buying old houses and doing them up.
Take sb/sth for granted: to be so used to sb/sth that you do not recognize their true value any more and do not show that you are grateful. Menospreciar, subestimar, no valorar: Her husband was always there and she just took him for granted.

Tuesday, 2 February 2010

Walking in Holden's Footsteps

Following J.D. Salinger’s death last week, The New York Times has created an interactive map that retraces the footsteps of Salinger’s most famous character, Holden Caulfield.

Ready for CAE p 82. Vocabulary

Hippocampus: /ˌhɪpəˈkæmpəs/
Analysis: /əˈnæləsɪs/ pl analyses /əˈnæləsiːz/
Counterpart: a person or thing that has the same position or function as sb/sth else in a different place or situation. Homólogo
Accomplished: very good at a particular thing; having a lot of skills: e.g. an accomplished artist / actor / chef. She was an elegant and accomplished woman.
Sleep rough: to spend the night in the open; be without a home or without shelter.
Sleep Soundly: deeply, peacefully, without waking How can he sleep soundly at night?
A deep/light sleep (=one that is difficult/easy to wake up from)
Light sleeper: one easily wakened.
Set sb/sth apart (from sb/sth): to make sb/sth different from or better than others:
Her elegant style sets her apart from other journalists.

Monday, 1 February 2010

Ready for CAE p 81. Vocabulary

Outrageous: very unusual and slightly shocking: e.g. she says the most outrageous things sometimes.
Potent: powerful: e.g. a potent force.
Flock: to go or gather together somewhere in large numbers: e.g. Thousands of people flocked to the beach this weekend. People flocked to hear him speak.
Dimly: not very brightly or clearly: e.g. a dimly lit room.
Tub: a large round container without a lid, used for washing clothes in, growing plants in, etc. Barreño.
Harness: to control and use the force or strength of sth to produce power or to achieve sth: e.g. attempts to harness the sun’s rays as a source of energy. We must harness the skill and creativity of our workforce. Explotar
Drone: /drəʊn/ to make a continuous low noise: e.g. a plane was droning in the distance. A droning voice (voz monótona).
Rot: to decay, or make sth decay, naturally and gradually. SYN decompose. Pudrirse: e.g. rotting leaves
Prop: a person or thing that gives help or support to sb/sth