Sunday, 25 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 197. Writing an Essay. The San Francisco School Perspectives. Extra Listening

Sixth graders in Ruth Corley's class at The San Francisco School have taken on a challenging assignment. They've written personal essays in the style of KQED Radio's Perspectives series. Now, some of those perspectives are airing on KQED. On Forum they talked with Corley and several of the students about their essays and the writing process.

Tuesday, 20 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 192. The Shape of A Story: Writing Tips from Kurt Vonnegut



Kurt Vonnegut was not only a great author. He was also an inspiration for anyone who aspires to write fiction – see for example his 8 rules for writing fiction, which starts with the so-obvious-it’s-often-forgotten reminder never to waste your reader’s time.

In this video, Vonnegut follows his own advice and sketches some brilliant blueprints for envisioning the “shape” of a story, all in less than 4 minutes and 37 seconds.

Saturday, 3 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 190. Review. Vocabulary

Stud: a small piece of jewellery with a part that is pushed through a hole in your ear, nose, etc. E.g. diamond studs.

Slave-driver: a person who makes people work extremely hard. E.g. my boss is a real slave-driver.

Friday, 2 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 188. The Gennitive. Extra Grammar

  • With the name of animals the genitive is morel likely to occur with domestic animals or with those that are credited with some intelligence. E.g. A cat's tail, a dog's bark, an elephant's trunk.
  • The genitive of nouns ending in -s is often formed adding 's -/ɪz/ to the noun. E.g. Mr Jones's cousin / ˈdʒəʊnzɪz/. But we sometimes find only an apostrophe, with or without the extra syllable -/ɪz/. E.g. Keats' poetry /kiːts/or /kiːtsɪz/. An apostrophe with no extra syllable is normal after Greek names, especially if they are long. E.g. Archimedes' Law /ˌɑːkɪˈmiːdiːz/
  • The genitive 's is added to the last element of a compound. E.g. My brother-in-law's car. My brothers-in-law's property. The king of Spain's daughter.
  • Note that you can use -'s after more than one noun. E.g. Jack and Karen's wedding. Mr and Mrs Carter's house.
  • The genitive with 's is optional with inanimate nouns that refer to a group of people, to places where people live, to human institutions, etc. E.g. Africa's future. America's resources. The committee's business. The club's finances. The country's needs. The earth's surface. London's traffic. The nation's affairs.
  • Apostrophe s is obligatory with nouns that refer to the length of duration of an event. E.g. A day's rest. A month (or two)'s time. A week's holiday. Julia has got three weeks' holiday. An hour (and a half)'s drive. I live near the station- it's only about ten minutes' walk.  Today's programme. A year's work.
  • With time expressions you can also use the genitive. E.g. Do you still have yesterday's newspapers? Next week's meeting has been cancelled
  • Apostrophe s is also obligatory in a number of fixed expressions. E.g. The ship's company. The ship's doctor. Have something at one's fingers' end (to be thoroughly familiar with). Keep someone at arm's length (to avoid having a close relationship with somebody. E.g. He keeps all his clients at arm's length.) Keep out of harm's way (in a safe place where somebody/something cannot be hurt or injured or do any damage to somebody/something. E.g. She put the knife in a drawer, out of harm's way. I prefer the children to play in the garden where they're out of harm's way.) Do something to one's heart's content (as much as you want. E.g. a supervised play area where children can run around to their heart's content). Be only a stone's throw away. Be at one's wits' end (to be so worried by a problem that you do not know what to do next. E.g. She was at her wits' end wondering how she'd manage it all in the time. The authorities are at their wits' end about juvenile delinquency.) Be at death's door (so ill/sick that you may die. E.g. I suppose you won't be coming to the party if you're at death's door!). For goodness' sake (for Christ's, God's, goodness', heaven's, pity's, etc. sake: used to emphasize that it is important to do something or when you are annoyed about something. E.g. Do be careful, for goodness' sake. Oh, for heaven's sake! For pity's sake, help me!)
  • The double genitive occurs in examples like: e.g. a friend of my father's (one of the friends that my father has). That dog of Robert's (that dog that Robert has) 
  • The genitive is not normally used when the noun is postmodified by a phrase or relative clause. E.g. The name of the man who came yesterday. The name of the man over there. The name of the man in the corner. What was the name of the man who phoned you?
  • Classifying genitive: the genitive specifies or describes the head noun. The genitive is inseparable from the head noun. They form a unity and cannot be replaced by an of-adjunct. The genitive has the main stress. If you place an adjective or qualifying word, it refers to the group. E.g. A beautiful summer's day (describes a kind of day, even in the winter); a giant's task (a kind of task, i.e. difficult, hard);be child's play (to be very easy to do, so not even a child would find it difficult); a child's face (looks like a child); a wolf in sheep's clothing (a person who seems to be friendly or harmless but is really an enemy); a bird's eye view (a view of something from a high position looking down. E.g. From the plane we had a bird's eye view of Manhattan); a busman's holiday ( is a holiday spent by a bus driver travelling on a bus: it is no break from his usual routine. A holiday that is spent doing the same thing that you do at work.); a stone's throw (a very short distance away. E.g. We live just a stone's throw from here. The hotel is within a stone's throw of the beach.); Craftsman (a skilled person, especially one who makes beautiful things by hand. E.g. rugs handmade by local craftsmen. It is clearly the work of a master craftsman); salesman; tradesman; bridesmaid; Tuesday (Tiu: god of war and the sky); Wednesday (Woden: king of the gods); Thursday (Thor: god of thunder); a men's club; a women's college; at death's door (so ill/sick that you may dieI suppose you won't be coming to the party if you're at death's door!); hair's breadth (a very small amount or distance. E.g. We won by a hair's breadth. They were within a hair's breadth of being killed); out of harm's way (in a safe place where somebody/something cannot be hurt or injured or do any damage to somebody/something. E.g. She put the knife in a drawer, out of harm's way. I prefer the children to play in the garden where they're out of harm's way).

Ready for CAE p 188. Language Focus: Noun Phrases. Vocabulary

Trip: to catch your foot on something and fall or almost fall. Tropezar. E.g. she tripped and fell. Someone will trip over that cable.

Perch (on something)to be placed on the top or the edge of something. E.g. the hotel perched precariously /prɪˈkeəriəsli/ on a steep hillside.


Height of somethingan extreme example of a particular quality. E.g. Height of luxury.


Net curtain: a very thin curtain that you hang at a window, which allows light to enter but stops people outside from being able to see inside. Visillo.


Flap: to move or to make something move up and down or from side to side, often making a noise. E.g. the sails flapped in the breeze.

Ready for CAE p 187. Listening: Vocabulary

Shock sb into action: stimulate. E.g. shock consumers into changing their ways.

Stunt: something that is done in order to attract people's attention. Montaje. E.g. a publicity stunt.

Lookout
1. a place for watching from, especially for danger or an enemy coming towards you. Puesto de observación. E.g. a lookout point/tower.
2. a person who has the responsibility of watching for something, especially danger, etc. Guardia, vigía. E.g. one of the men stood at the door to act as a lookout.

Board sth up: to cover a window, door, etc. with wooden boards. Cerras con tablas. E.g. most buildings along the street had been boarded up.

Bring sth about: to make something happen. Cause. Provocar. E.g. what brought about the change in his attitude?

Shopper: a person who buys goods from shops/stores. E.g the streets were full of Christmas shoppers.

One-offmade or happening only once and not regularly. Excepción. E.g. a one-off payment.

Run-up: a period of time leading up to an important event; the preparation for this. Preliminares. E.g. an increase in spending in the run-up to Christmas. During the run-up to the election.

Give sth away: to make known something that somebody wants to keep secret. Revelar. E.g. It was supposed to be a surprise but the children gave the game away. 

   
Chuckle: a quiet laugh. Risita. E.g. she gave a chuckle of delight.

Word of mouth:  people tell each other and do not read about it. Boca a boca. E.g. the news spread by word of mouth.

Go about sth: to start working on something. Tackle. Emprender. E.g. you're not going about the job in the right way. How should I go about finding a job?


Ready for CAE p 186. Vocabulary 2: Quantifying Nouns. Vocabulary

Drip: to fall in small drops. Gotear. E.g. she was hot and sweat dripped into her eyes. Water was dripping down the walls.


Pool (of something): a small amount of liquid or light lying on a surface. Charco. E.g. the body was lying in a pool of blood. A pool of light (un foco de luz).

Crate: a large wooden container for transporting goods. Caja. E.g. a crate of bananas.
Gang: a group of young people who spend a lot of time together and often cause trouble or fight against other groups. Pandilla. E.g. a gang of youths. A street gang. All the local boys are members of gangs.
The seabed: the floor of the sea/ocean. Fondo del mar.
Mouthful: an amount of food or drink that you put in your mouth at one time. Bocado. E.g. she took a mouthful of water. Thank you, but I couldn't eat another mouthful. He talked eagerly between mouthfuls of salad. 
Bunch of something: a number of things of the same type which are growing or fastened together. E.g. a bunch of bananas/grapes (racimo), etc. A bunch of keys (manojo). She picked me a bunch of flowers (ramo). 
Set (of something): a group of similar things that belong together in some way. Juego, colección, serie. E.g. A set of six chairs. A complete set of her novels. A set of false teeth. A new set of rules to learn. You can borrow my keys—I have a spare set.
Guidelines: rules or instructions that are given by an official organization telling you how to do something, especially something difficult. Pautas, directrices. E.g. the government has drawn up guidelines on the treatment of the mentally ill.
Pack
1. a set of cards used for playing card games. Baraja E.g. Do you have a pack of cards?  
2. a number of things that are wrapped or tied together, especially for carrying. Fardo. E.g. donkeys carrying packs of wool. (Figurative) Everything she told us is a pack of lies (= a story that is completely false). 
3. a group of animals that hunt together or are kept for hunting. Manada. E.g. packs of savage dogs. Wolves hunting in packs. A pack of hounds (hunting dogs)
 
Flock:
1. a group of sheep (rebaño), goats or birds (bandada) of the same type.
2.  a large group of people, especially of the same type. Multitud. E.g. a flock of children/reporters. They came in flocks to see the procession.

Swarm: /swɔːm/  
1. a large group of insects, especially bees, moving together in the same direction. Enjambre. E.g. a swarm of bees/locusts /'ləʊkəst/ (langosta)/flies.
2. a large group of people, especially when they are all moving quickly in the same direction. Multitud

Handful:  
1. a small number of people or things. Puñado. E.g. only a handful of people came. They cannot hope to win more than a handful of seats at the next election.
2. the amount of something that can be held in one hand. Puñado. E.g. a handful of rice.

Scrap:
1. a small piece of something, especially paper, cloth, etc. Trocito. She scribbled (wrote quickly and carelessly) his phone number on a scrap of paper. (Figurative) scraps of information.
2. a small amount of something. E.g. it won't make a scrap of difference. There's not a scrap of evidence to support his claim. A barren landscape without a scrap of vegetation.
3. Scraps: food left after a meal. Sobras. Give the scraps to the dog. 

Material: cloth used for making clothes, curtains, etc. Tela.

Lump: a piece of something hard or solid, usually without a particular shape. Pedazo. A lump of coal/cheese/wood/sugar (terrón). This sauce has lumps in it. 

Grain
1. a small hard piece of particular substances.Grano. E.g. a grain of salt/sand/sugar
2. a very small amount. Pizca. There isn't a grain of truth in those rumours. If he had a grain of sensitivity he wouldn't have asked her about her divorce. 

Ray:
1. a narrow line of light, heat or other energy. E.g. the sun's rays. Ultraviolet rays. The windows were shining in the reflected rays of the setting sun.
2. Ray of sth: a small amount of something good or of something that you are hoping for. e.g. there was just one small ray of hope.

Ready for CAE p 184. Reading: Vocabulary

High street: the main street of a town, where most shops/stores, banks, etc. are. Calle mayor. E.g. Peckham High Street. 106 High Street, Peckham. High-street banks/shops.

Spree: a short period of time that you spend doing one particular activity that you enjoy, but often too much of it. Juerga. Hacer algo desenfrenadamente. E.g. a shopping/spending spree. He's out on a spree. They went on a spending spree (salieron a gastarse lo que no está escrito).

Fall apart: to be in very bad condition so that parts are breaking off. Caerse a pedazos. E.g. my car is falling apart.

Clear-out: a process of getting rid of things or people that you no longer want. Limpieza a fondo. E.g. have a clear-out. A staff clear-out is being planned at party headquarters (= people are going to lose their jobs).

Heap: an untidy pile of something. Montón. E.g. the building was reduced to a heap of rubble. Worn-out car tyres were stacked in heaps.

Pull: Attraction. The fact of something attracting you or having a strong effect on you. Atracción, fuerza. E.g. the magnetic pull of the city was hard to resist. He felt the pull of paternal love.

Voracious: /vəˈreɪʃəs/ Having an insatiable appetite for an activity; greedy. Insaciable. E.g. a voracious reader.

Frugality: /fruˈɡæləti/ the fact of using only as much money or food as is necessary. Austeridad. E.g When I was growing up, frugality was a way of life.


Source: to get something from a particular place. Obtener. E.g. we source all the meat sold in our stores from British farms.

Sweatshop: a place where people work for low wages in poor conditions. Fábrica donde se explota a los obreros.


Sound: sensible; that you can rely on and that will probably give good results. Sensato. E.g. a person of sound judgement He gave me some very sound advice.

Code: a set of moral principles or rules of behaviour that are generally accepted by society or a social group. E.g. a strict code of conduct.

Patch sth up:to repair sth especially in a temporary way by adding a new piece of material or a patch: E.g.Just to patch the boat up will cost £10 000.

Odd: occasional

Vintage: /ˈvɪntɪdʒ/ typical of a period in the past and of high quality. De época

Chuck sth away/Chuck sth out: to throw something away. Tirar. E.g. those old clothes can be chucked out. 

Ready for CAE p 183. Money Buys Happiness. Vocabulary

Windfall: an amount of money that somebody/something wins or receives unexpectedly. Ganancia inesperada. E.g. the hospital got a sudden windfall of £300000.

Receipt: /rɪˈsiːt/ the act of receiving something. Recepción. E.g. to acknowledge receipt of a letter.

Outlook: the attitude to life and the world of a particular person, group or culture. Perspectiva, punto de vista. E.g. he had a practical outlook on life. 

Contented: /kənˈtentɪd/ showing or feeling happiness or satisfaction, especially because your life is good. Satisfecho. E.g. a contented smile. He was a contented man.

Leap: a long or high jump. E.g. a leap of six metres

Wear off: to gradually disappear or stop. Pasar, desgastarse, desaparecer. E.g. the effects of the drug will soon wear off. The novelty of married life was beginning to wear off. 

Contentment: /kənˈtentmənt/ a feeling of happiness or satisfaction. Satisfacción. E.g. he has found contentment at last. A sigh of contentment
 
 

Thursday, 1 April 2010

Ready for CAE p 181. Listening: Advice on Money Matters. Vocabulary

Get down to: to begin to do something; to give serious attention to something. Let's get down to business.I like to get down to work by 9. It's time I got down to thinking about that essay.

Maintenance: money given by sb to sb to pay for food. Pensión alimenticia.

Outgoings: money you spend. Gastos

Overdraft: /ˈəʊvədrɑːft/ the amount of money that you owe to a bank when you have spent more money than is in your bank account; an arrangement that allows you to do this. Descubierto. E.g. to pay off an overdraft. I had to arrange an overdraft to pay for the car. The savings account has no overdraft facility. To run up (accumulate) an overdraft.

Overdrawn: having taken more money out of your bank account than you have in it. En números rojos. E.g. I'm overdrawn by £100. Do you have to pay charges if you go overdrawn?

Strike a balance: to manage to find a way of being fair to two opposing things; to find an acceptable position which is between two things. Lograr un equilibrio. E.g. It's a question of striking the right balance between quality and productivity.

Pay sth off: to finish paying money owed for something. We paid off our mortgage after fifteen years.

Be down to: Be because of. Se debe a, se atribuye a. E.g. It is all down to healthy living.  

Ready for CAE p 180. Vocabulary 1: Money. Vocabulary

In arrears: /əˈrɪəz/ if money or a person is paid in arrears for work, the money is paid after the work has been done.
Instalment: /ɪnˈstɔːlmənt/ one of a number of payments that are made regularly over a period of time until something has been paid for. Plazo, cuota. E.g. we paid for the car by/in instalments.
Impulse: /ˈɪmpʌls/ a sudden strong wish or need to do something, without stopping to think about the results. E.g. He had a sudden impulse to stand up and sing. I resisted the impulse to laugh. Her first impulse was to run away. The door was open and on (an) impulse she went inside. He tends to act on impulse. 
Hire purchase: /ˈpɜːtʃəs/ a method of buying an article by making regular payments for it over several months or years. The article only belongs to the person who is buying it when all the payments have been made. Comprar algo a plazos. E.g. a hire purchase agreement. We're buying a new cooker on hire purchase. 
Credit: an arrangement that you make, with a shop/store for example, to pay later for something you buy. E.g. we bought the dishwasher on credit. 
Frugal: /ˈfruːɡl / using only as much money or food as is necessary. Austero. E.g. a frugal existence/life. He has always been hard-working and frugal. 

Ready for CAE p 178. Review: Vocabulary

Work sth up: to develop or improve something with some effort. Estimular. I can't work up any enthusiasm for his idea. She went for a long walk to work up an appetite (abrir el apetito)


Pick at sth: to eat food slowly, taking small amounts or bites because you are not hungry. Comer sin ganas. E.g. she sat at the table in silence, picking at her dinner.


Close second: nearly won. E.g. he finished a close second: llegó en segundo lugar muy cerca del ganador.


Wholly: /ˈhəʊlli/ completely, totally. E.g. wholly inappropriate behaviour. The government is not wholly to blame for the recession.

Ready for CAE p 176. History of Obesity. Extra Listening.

The Forum is one of my favourite BBC World Service programmes. They invite prominent international thinkers to debate big ideas. In this episode American cultural historian Sander Gilman, explores the battle between mind and body in overweight people which he says has been a problem in human society longer than most of us think.

Ready for CAE p 176. Film Version of Michael Pollan’s Botany of Desire. Extra Listening



Michael Pollan’s best-selling book, Botany of Desire, is now a film. The film takes you inside our relationship with the plant world, and shows “how four familiar species — the apple, the tulip, cannabis and the potato — evolved to satisfy our yearnings for sweetness, beauty, intoxication and control.” The preview is above. You can watch Michael Pollan's interview with Bill Moyers about food (there is a transcript below the video).

Ready for CAE p 176. Listening: Vocabulary

Produce: /ˈprɒdjuːs/ things that have been made or grown, especially things connected with farming. Productos alimenticios. E.g. farm produce. The shop sells only fresh local produce. It says on the label ‘Produce of France’.

Crunch: a noise like the sound of something firm being crushed. Crujido. E.g. the crunch of feet on snow.

Bland: not having a strong or interesting taste. Soso, insípido. E.g. a rather bland diet of soup, fish and bread.

Dry up: to become completely dry. E.g. during the drought (/draʊt/ a long period of time when there is little or no rain) the river dried up. 

Fussy: too concerned or worried about details or standards, especially unimportant ones. Quisquilloso. E.g. she's such a fussy eater.‘Where do you want to go for lunch?’ ‘I'm not fussy (= I don't mind).’ 

Fizzy drink: a drink with bubbles. Refresco con gas. 

Serve sth up: to put food onto plates and give it to people. Servir. E.g. he served up a delicious meal.

Outlet: a shop/store or an organization that sells goods made by a particular company or of a particular type. Punto de venta.  E.g. the business has 34 retail outlets in this state alone.

Overhear: to hear, especially by accident, a conversation in which you are not involved. Oír por casualidad. E.g. we talked quietly so as not to be overheard. I overheard a conversation between two boys on the bus.
 
Go about sth: to start working on something. Tackle. Emprender. E.g. how should I go about finding a job?

Put sth. together: to make or prepare something by fitting or collecting parts together. Montar, juntar.  E.g. to put together a model plane/an essay/a meal.

Give in: to admit that you have been defeated by somebody/something. Ceder, darse por vencido. E.g. the rebels were forced to give in. 

Pig out (on) sth: to eat too much food. Darse un atracón. E.g. they pigged out on pizza. 
 

Ready for CAE p 176. Jamie Oliver: Eat to Save Your Life. Extra Listening



Ready for CAE p 176. Jamie Oliver. Eat to Save Your Life

Ready for CAE p 176. I Have Metal Fillings in My Teeth. Extra Joke


Ready for CAE p 176. The End of Overeating. Extra Listening

Pediatrician and former head of the Food and Drug Administration David Kessler says the U.S. food industry has manipulated American consumers into unhealthy eating habits. In his book, "The End of Overeating: Taking Control of the Insatiable American Appetite," Kessler describes how chronic overeaters might resist artificially induced food cravings. Listen to the interview on NPR The Forum.

Ready for CAE p 176. Obesity. Extra Listening

Here you have some videos from the ABC's Life at 3 about obesity.

Ready for CAE p 176. Jamie Oliver: Teach every Child about Food. Extra Listening



Sharing powerful stories from his anti-obesity project in Huntington, W. Va., TED Prize winner Jamie Oliver makes the case for an all-out assault on our ignorance of food

Ready for CAE p 176. Jamie Oliver wins the TED Prize for 2010.

From the New York Times:
"... this British celebrity chef has made it his mission in recent years to break people’s dependence on fast food, believing that if they can learn to cook just a handful of dishes, they’ll get hooked on eating healthfully. The joy of a home-cooked meal, rudimentary as it sounds, has been at the core of his career from the start, and as he has matured, it has turned into a platform."

To learn more go to TED blog

Ready for CAE p 176. Jamie Oliver

Jamie Oliver is an English chef and media personality well known for his growing list of food-focused television shows, in his more recent roles he has been campaigning against the use of processed foods in national schools, and he has recently campaigned to change unhealthy diets and poor cooking habits for the better across the United Kingdom. You can visit his website here: http://www.jamieoliver.com/
You can become a fan on facebook. And you can watch his videos on Youtube.

Ready for CAE p 176. Food Addiction. Extra Listening

New research shows certain foods can cause an addictive-like state in the brain. Researchers say food addiction is one of the rarely discussed culprits (people or things responsible for causing a problem) of the nation's obesity epidemic. What can we do to lessen our unhealthy food addictions?

Ready for CAE p 176. Super Size Me. Extra Listening




You can watch more films and documentaries on Youtube.

Ready for CAE p 175. Deception. Vocabulary

Defraud: /dɪˈfrɔːd/ to get money illegally from a person or an organization by tricking them. Estafar. E.g. all three men were charged with conspiracy to defraud. Defraud somebody (of something): e.g. they were accused of defrauding the company of $14000.

Snout: /snaʊt/ the long nose and area around the mouth of some types of animal, such as a pig. Hocico.



Fruit bat: a bat that lives in hot countries and eats fruit. Murciélago de Samoa.




Trick somebody out of something: to get something from somebody by means of a trick. Estafarle algo a alguien. E.g. she was tricked out of her life savings.

Bogus: /ˈbəʊɡəs/ pretending to be real or genuine. False. Falso. E.g. a bogus doctor/contract. Bogus claims of injury by workers.

Take sb in to make somebody believe something that is not true. Deceive. E.g. she took me in completely with her story. Don't be taken in by his charm—he's ruthless (cruel).

Trickster: a person who tricks or cheats people. Estafador, embustero, embaucador. Confidence trickster: a person who defrauds someone after winning their confidence.

Fall for sth: to be tricked into believing something that is not true. E.g. I'm surprised you fell for that trick.

Con man: a man who tricks others into giving him money, etc. A con-man is short for confidence man, so named because one gives him money as a token of "confidence" in him. Estafador. E.g. I was tricked by a con man.

See through sb./sth.: to realize the truth about somebody/something. Calar. E.g we saw through him from the start. I can see through your little game (= I am aware of the trick you are trying to play on me).

Take sb for a ride: 1. Lit. to carry someone about, usually for recreation, in a car, plane, boat, etc. E.g would you take us for a ride in your boat? Please take me for a ride in your new car.

2. Fig. to deceive someone. E.g. you really took those people for a ride. They really believed you. I was taken for a ride on this matter.
Mug: a person who is stupid and easy to trick. Ingenuo. E.g. They made me look a complete mug. He's no mug.
Yield: to produce or provide something, for example a profit, result or crop. Producir. High-yielding (de alto rendimiento).
Annuity: /əˈnjuːəti/
a type of insurance that pays a fixed amount of money to somebody each year. E.g. income from pensions, annuities and trusts
Scheme: a plan or system for doing or organizing something. E.g. a training scheme
Swindle
Verb: to cheat somebody in order to get something, especially money, from them. Estafar, timar. Swindle sb out of sth: they swindled him out of hundreds of dollars. Swindle sth out of sb: they swindled hundreds of dollars out of him. 
Noun: a situation in which somebody uses dishonest or illegal methods in order to get money from a company, another person, etc. A con (confidence trick). Timo, estafa.
Swindler: con man. Estafador 

Ready for CAE p 172. Reading: Vocabulary

Yoghurts recalled after mould found

Recall something: to ask for something to be returned, often because there is something wrong with it. Retirar del mercado. E.g. the company has recalled all the faulty hairdryers.

Mould: /məʊld/ a fine soft green, grey or black substance like fur (hair that grows on the body of some animals) that grows on old food or on objects that are left in warm wet air. Moho. E.g. there's mould on the cheese. Moulds and fungi (/ˈfʌŋɡiː/pl of fungus: hongo). The room smelled damp and there was mould on one wall.

Batch: an amount of food, medicine, etc. produced at one time. Hornada, tanda, lote. E.g. a batch of cookies. Loaves of bread baked in batches of 20. It is necessary to make new batches of flu vaccine whenever a different, virulent (/ˈvɪrʊlənt/ extremely dangerous or harmful and quick to have an effect. Virulento) strain ( type of plant or animal, or of a disease) of flu makes an appearance.

Range: a set of products of a particular type. Línea, gama. E.g. our new range of hair products.

Liken something/somebody to something/somebody(formal): /ˈlaɪkən/ to compare one thing or person to another and say they are similar. Comparar. E.g. Life is often likened to a journey.

Pungent: /ˈpʌndʒənt/ having a strong taste or smell. Acre, penetrante. E.g. the pungent smell of burning rubber. The air was pungent with the smell of spices.

Odour: /ˈəʊdə/ a smell, especially one that is unpleasant. Olor. E.g. A pungent odour. A musty odour (smelling damp and unpleasant because of a lack of fresh air. Que huele a humedad). A foul odour (/faʊl/ dirty and smelling bad. Fétido, nauseabundo). The stale (no longer fresh; smelling unpleasant. No fresco) odour of cigarette smoke.

Go off: if food or drink goes off, it becomes bad and not fit to eat or drink. Estropearse, pasarse.

Withdraw: move away from a place. Pull out. Retirar. Government troops were forced to withdraw.

Precautionary: /priˈkɔːʃənər‿i / done in advance in order to prevent problems or to avoid danger. Preventivo. E.g. He was kept in the hospital overnight as a precautionary measure.

Claim to ask for money because you have a right to it. Solicitar cobrar. E.g. he's going to claim compensation: va a reclamar una indemnización.

Dispose of somebody/something: to get rid of somebody/something that you do not want or cannot keep. Deshacerse de. E.g. the difficulties of disposing of nuclear waste. To dispose of stolen property.

Forward: Send

 Lid: a cover over a container that can be removed or opened by turning it or lifting it. Tapa. E.g. a dustbin lid. I can't get the lid off this jar.

Sell-by date: the date printed on food packages, etc. after which the food must not be sold. E.g. this milk is past its sell-by date. Fecha límite de venta.

Voucher: /ˈvaʊtʃə/ a printed piece of paper that can be used instead of money to pay for something, or that allows you to pay less than the usual price of something. Vale, cupón. E.g. a voucher for a free meal. A travel voucher. This discount voucher entitles you to 10% off your next purchase.


Extract from a novel

Get on: (also get along) used to talk or ask about how well somebody is doing in a particular situation. E.g. he's getting on very well at school. How did you get on at the interview?Boldly: bravely and confidently. Con audacia, atrevimiento. E.g. he stepped boldly forward to speak.
 
Septic: infected with harmful bacteria. Séptico, infectado. E.g. a septic finger. A dirty cut may go septic.
 
Outbreak: the sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease. Comienzo, estallido, brote. E.g. the outbreak of war. An outbreak of typhoid (/ˈtaɪfɔɪd/fiebre tifoidea).
 
Food-poisoning: an illness of the stomach caused by eating food that contains harmful bacteria. Intoxicación alimentaria.
 
Trace sth back to sth: to find the origin or cause of something. Seguirle la pista/el rastro. She could trace her family tree back to the 16th century. The leak was eventually traced to a broken seal (a substance, strip of material, etc. used to fill a crack so that air, liquid, etc. cannot get in or out. Precinto, cierre. E.g. only drink bottled water and check the seal isn't broken.)
The police traced the call (= used special electronic equipment to find out who made the telephone call) to her ex-husband's number.

Note: an official document with a particular purpose. E.g. a sick note from your doctor. A doctor's note (baja médica)

Lay sb off: to stop employing somebody because there is not enough work for them to do. Make somebody redundant. Despedir. E.g. 200 workers at the factory have been laid off.

Scare: a situation in which a lot of people are anxious or frightened about something. Pánico. E.g. a bomb/health scare. Recent scares about pesticides in food.

Scapegoat: a person who is blamed for something bad that somebody else has done or for some failure. Synonym: fall guy. Chivo expiatorio. Cabeza de turco. E.g. She felt she had been made a scapegoat for her boss's incompetence.


Appearances can be deceptive

Under cover: pretending to be somebody else in order to do something secretly. E.g. a police officer working under cover.

Trawl: /trɔːl/ to search through a large amount of information or a large number of people, places, etc. looking for a particular thing or person. E.g. she trawled the shops for bargains.

Retailer: /ˈriːteɪələ/ a person or business that sells goods to the public. Minorista. E.g. one of the country's largest food retailers.

Track sth/sb downto find somebody/something after searching in several different places. Synonym: trace. Localizar. E.g. the police have so far failed to track down the attacker.I finally tracked the reference down in a book of quotations.

Enticing: /ɪnˈtaɪsɪŋ/ something that is enticing is so attractive and interesting that you want to have it or know more about it. Tetador, apetecible, atractivo. E.g. the offer was too enticing to refuse.An enticing smell came from the kitchen.The idea of two weeks in the sun sounds very enticing.

Mislead: misled, misled. To give somebody the wrong idea or impression and make them believe something that is not true. Engañar. E.g. he deliberately misled us about the nature of their relationship.

Culprit: /ˈkʌlprɪt/ a person who has done something wrong or against the law. Culpable. E.g. the police quickly identified the real culprits.

Maple syrup: a sweet sticky sauce made with liquid obtained from some types of maple tree, often eaten with pancakes. Jarabe de arce. 

Reliant on: needing somebody/something in order to survive, be successful, etc. Dependent. E.g. Businesses have become increasingly reliant on complicated computing systems.

Distort: to twist or change facts, ideas, etc. so that they are no longer correct or true. Deformar, distorsionar, tergiversar. E.g. newspapers are often guilty of distorting the truth. The article gave a distorted picture of his childhood.
  
Claim: a statement that something is true although it has not been proved and other people may not agree with or believe it Afirmación, alegación. E.g. the singer has denied the magazine's claim that she is leaving the band. A report examining claims of corrupt links between politicians.

Acknowledge: /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/ to accept that something is true. Admitir, reconocer. E.g. acknowledge something. She refuses to acknowledge the need for reform. Are you prepared to acknowledge your responsibility?

Ammunition: /ˌæmjuˈnɪʃən/ information that can be used against another person in an argument. Munición, argumentos. E.g. the letter gave her all the ammunition she needed. 

Home in on sth:  
1 to aim at something and move straight towards it. Dirigirse a. E.g. the missile homed in on the target. A shark homing in on its victim.
2 to direct your thoughts or attention towards something. I began to feel I was really homing in on the answer. The investigation homed in on the town of Carlton.

Boostto make something increase, or become better or more successful. Aumentar, incrementar. E.g. to boost exports/profits. The movie helped boost her screen career. To boost somebody's confidence/morale.

Flout: /flaʊt/ to show that you have no respect for a law, etc. by openly not obeying it. Defy. Desobedecer. Saltarse algo a la torera. E.g. motorists regularly flout the law.

Make your blood boil: make you very angry. 



Ready for CAE p 172. The Foods that Make Billions. Extra Listening

In the series The Food that Make Billions, the BBC looks at how branding and marketing turn relatively cheap commodities into high value products.

Ready for CAE p 170. Eating in the Right Places. Vocabulary

Lie in sth: to exist or be found. E.g. the problem lies in deciding when to intervene.

Serve something up: to put food onto plates and give it to people. E.g. he served up a delicious meal.

Flock: a group of sheep, goats or birds of the same type. Rebaño, bandada. E.g.a flock of birds.

Unwelcome: (adj) not wanted. Desagradable, poco grato E.g. an unwelcome visitor. To avoid attracting unwelcome attention he kept his voice down. Unwelcome news.

Snob: (disapproving) a person who thinks they are much better than other people because they are intelligent or like things that many people do not like. Entendido. An intellectual snob. A food/wine, etc. snob.

Overrate somebody/something: to have too high an opinion of somebody/something; to put too high a value on somebody/something. Sobreestimar. E.g. in my opinion, Hirst's work has been vastly overrated. Opposite: underrate: menospreciar.

A good/great deal: much; a lot. E.g. they spent a great deal of money. It took a great deal of time. I'm feeling a good deal better. We see them a great deal (= often).

Enjoyable: giving pleasure. Agradable, placentero. E.g. an enjoyable weekend/experience. Highly/really/thoroughly/very enjoyable.

Stuffy: warm in an unpleasant way and without enough fresh air. Mal ventilado, cargado. A stuffy room. It gets very hot and stuffy in here in summer.

Overall: general. Total. Overall marks. There will be winners in each of three age groups, and one overall winner.

Ready for CAE p 170. Food Court Musical. Extra Listening