Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 30. Extra Vocabulary Exercise



Add vowels to complete the phrases.
1.      I’m just a beginner. I’m l__ __ rn__ng the r__p__s.
2.      When you’re not sure about a decision, you just need to tr__st your __nst__nct.
3.      I’m really enjoying my new job, but it’s been a st__ __p learning c__r__.
4.      I was planning to have a big party to celebrate, but now I’m having s__c__nd th__ __ghts.
5.      We don’t know what is going to happen, so we need to keep an op__n m__nd about things.
6.      Let’s try to look at the situation from a wh__l__ new p__rsp__ct__v__.
7.      I can’t stand it when people are so n__rr__w-m__nd__d.
8.      Often the interviewer will need to play d__v__l’s __dv__c__t__ in order to get a discussion going..
9.      You can rely on Fernandez to sp__ __k his m__nd.
10.  It’s no use b__ __ting __b__ __t th__ b__sh. Just get to the point.


KEY


1. learning the ropes        



2. trust your instinct        



3. steep learning curve                                 



 4. second thoughts     



 5. open mind     



6. whole new perspective                              



7. narrow-minded      



 8. devil’s advocate      

One who argues against a cause or position either for the sake of argument or to help determine its validity. For example, My role in the campaign is to play devil's advocate to each new policy before it's introduced to the public. This term comes from the Roman Catholic Church, where advocatus diaboli (Latin for “devil's advocate”) signifies an official who is appointed to present arguments against a proposed canonization or beatification. It was transferred to wider use in the mid-1700s.



 9. speak his mind                                 



10. beating about the bush
 beat about the bush (British English) (North American English beat around the bush) to talk about something for a long time without coming to the main point. E.g. Stop beating about the bush and tell me what you want.

 

Speakout Advanced p 30. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1
KEY
1 I’ve only been working here for two weeks so I’m still learning the ropes.



2 You are so talented, you should believe in yourself.



3 Correct.



4 I decided to take advantage of the opportunity.



5 David didn’t need to think because he trusted his instincts (no on needed after trust).







6 correct



7 Correct.



8 It’s a difficult course and Frank’s on a steep learning curve.
curb: 1 curb (on something) something that controls and puts limits on something. E.g. curbs on government spending. 2 (North American English) (British English kerb) the edge of the raised path at the side of a road, usually made of long pieces of stone. E.g. The bus mounted the curb (= went onto the sidewalk / pavement ) and hit a tree.

Ex 2A
steady: not changing and not interrupted. Regular. E.g. His breathing was steady. A steady job/income. She drove at a steady 50 mph. They set off at a steady pace. A steady boyfriend/girlfriend(= with whom you have a serious relationship or one that has lasted a long time). To have a steady relationship.

commute: /kəˈmjuːt/ the journey that a person makes when they commute to work. E.g. a two-hour commute into downtown Washington. I have only a short commute to work. Today most commutes are not suburb to city to suburb but from one suburb to another.

Ex 4A
expect + to inf
required + to inf
in+ -ing
chance + to inf
make plans + to inf
impossible + to inf
mind + -ing
advise you + to inf

Ex 5A
KEY
 
1 Quite frankly, 



2 According to, 



I’m concerned
 



3 To my knowledge, 



If you 



4 can gather, 



reality is 

Ex 5B
They don’t need to be the students' own opinions, but should be opinions that are likely to be controversial and spark debate. 
 

Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 29.Nature Versus Nurture. Listening

I’m going to talk about the influence of nature (1)_________ nurture. And I’d like to begin by (2)___________ that, as I (3)__________ it, (4)________ the strongest influence has to be ‘nurture’. The (5)______________ this is that I believe the way we’re (6)______________ will have a (7)______________ influence on how we behave than our genes. I mean, some people (8)______________ our abilities are determined (9)_________ much exclusively by our genes, so if your father had a natural (10)_____________ mathematics, then there’s a pretty good chance that you might inherit that same ability. (11)____________, I think it’s ridiculous to suggest this. I think that when a parent is interested in something, then (12)______________ that when they have children, they will try to (13)_____________ the children the same sort of interest, they will (14)__________ their knowledge, their passion for the subject, they are quite (15)___________ to engage the child (16)__________ activities related to that field. And it’s (17)____________ of this that the child may also develop strengths or abilities in the same field. I absolutely (18)_________ the idea that nature (19)__________ us with these (20)________ abilities. I (21)____________, you can be born with the best natural musical ability in the universe, but if you don’t practise the piano, then nothing will (22)_____________. On the other hand, I think you can teach people to do just about anything, (23)____________ you dedicate time and stimulate the child. So, to (24)__________ I would have to argue that ‘nurture’ is more important than ‘nature’.
C: Let’s take questions from the (25)_____________.
Q: People often very much (26)________________ their parents in (27)___________ of their physical appearance, and even their characters. Why then, do you not think that it is equally possible that a child will inherit its parents’ ability, or intelligence?
S: That’s a good question, because yes, we can see that we do inherit physical characteristics from our parents. However, the point I’m trying (28)_____________ is that we cannot rely on something we are (29)______________  be born with. For (30)____________, the influence of nurture is (31)____________ stronger. I (32)__________ that everyone has the same potential, they just need to be given the right conditions to (33)__________ and develop that potential.



KEY
1. versus



2. stating 



3. see
As I see it 



4. by far 



5. reason I think 
The reason I think this is that 



6. brought up 



7. much stronger 



8. will argue that 
some people will argue that



9. pretty
pretty much: almost; almost completely. E.g. One dog looks pretty much like another to me. 



10. ability for
scientist with a natural ability for mathematics



11. Personally



12. the chances are
the chances are (that) it is likely that. E.g. The chances are you won't have to pay.



13. instil in
instil something (in/into somebody): to gradually make somebody feel, think or behave in a particular way over a period of time. Sp. inculcar. E.g. to instil confidence/discipline/fear into somebody.



14. pass on
pass on: to give someone something that someone else has given you. E.g. When you’ve read this message, please pass it on.



15. likely



16. in
engage in something/ engage somebody in something (formal) to take part in something; to make somebody take part in something. E.g. Even in prison, he continued to engage in criminal activities. She tried desperately to engage him in conversation.



17. as a result
it's as a result of this that



18. reject
I absolutely reject the idea that  



19. endows
endow somebody/something with something: to give something to somebody/something. E.g. to endow somebody with a responsibility.



20. inborn
inborn: an inborn quality is one that you are born with. Innate. E.g. Some people have an inborn tendency to put on weight.  



21. mean
I mean,... 



22. come of it
come of/from something: to be the result of something. E.g. I made a few enquiries, but nothing came of it in the end. Come of/from doing something That comes of eating too much!



23. so long as
so/as long as: only if. E.g. We'll go as long as the weather is good.



24. conclude
To conclude I would have to argue that... 



25. floor 
the floor [singular] the part of a building where discussions or debates are held, especially in a parliament; the people who attend a discussion or debate. E.g. Opposition politicians registered their protest on the floor of the House. We will now take any questions from the floor.
 
 
 
26. resemble
 
 
 
27. terms
in terms of something: used to show what aspect of a subject you are talking about or how you are thinking about it. E.g. The job is great in terms of salary, but it has its disadvantages. 
 
 
 
28. to make
The point I’m trying to make is that... 



29. assumed to
We are assumed to be born with 



30. me
For me,... 



31. far 
far stronger 



32. believe
I believe that...



33. nurture
nurture something to help somebody/something to develop and be successful. E.g. It's important to nurture a good working relationship. My father nurtured a love of art in me. Her teacher recognized and nurtured her musical talent from an early age. 
KEY
 
Transcript
S: OK, I’m going to talk about the influence of nature versus nurture. And I’d like to begin by stating that, as I see it, by far the strongest influence has to be ‘nurture’. The reason I think this is that I believe the way we’re brought up will have a much stronger influence on how we behave than anything that’s in our genes. I mean, some people will argue that our abilities are determined pretty much exclusively by our genes, so if your father was a great scientist with a natural ability for mathematics, then there’s a pretty good chance that you might inherit that same ability. Personally, I think it’s ridiculous to suggest this. I think that when a parent has a particular strength, or interest, or achieves something wonderful in a particular field, then the chances are that when they have children, they will try to instil in the children the same kind of interest, they will pass on their knowledge, their passion for the subject, they are quite likely to engage the child in activities related to that field, perhaps for quite a lot of the child’s time. And it’s as a result of this that the child may also develop strengths or abilities in the same field. I absolutely reject the idea that nature endows us with these inborn abilities. I mean, you can be born with the best natural musical ability in the universe, but if you don’t practise the piano, then nothing will come of it. On the other hand, I think you can teach people to do just about anything, so long as you dedicate time and give the child the right kind of encouragement, or put them in the right situation. So, to conclude I would have to argue that ‘nurture’ plays a much stronger role in the development of who you are, and the talents that you develop than ‘nature’ does.
C: OK. Thank you. And now, let’s open the discussion up and take questions from the floor. Does anyone have a question for one of the speakers?
Q: Yes, I’d like to ask a question to the last speaker. I think it is quite obvious if you look around you, that people often very much resemble their parents in terms of their physical appearance, and even their characters. Why then, do you not think that it is equally possible that a child will inherit its parents’ ability, or intelligence?
S: That’s a good question, because yes, we can see that we do inherit physical characteristics from our parents. However, the point I’m trying to make is that we cannot rely on something we are assumed to be born with. For me, the influence of nurture is far stronger. I believe that everyone has the same potential, they just need to be given the right conditions to nurture and develop that potential. Thank you for the question.
C: Thank you. Are there any other questions?

Speakout Advanced p 29.Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 6A
KEY
The speaker presents the ‘nurture’ side of the argument, suggesting that people do not inherit their abilities but that they develop them through experience. She uses the example that a child born with a natural ability for music will not develop into a good pianist unless he or she practises the piano.

Ex 6B
KEY
I’d like to begin by stating that,
As I see it …,
I think it’s ridiculous to suggest …,
I absolutely reject the idea that …,
So, to conclude I would have to argue that,
Does anyone have a question …? / Are there any other questions?,
That’s a good question, because …

Ex 6C
KEY
Introduce the argument:
I’d like to begin by stating that



Justify their opinion:
As I see it … /What I think is…
I would say it depends on…,
What you need to consider is …,
I think it’s ridiculous to suggest …,
I absolutely reject the idea that …



Conclude:
So, to conclude I would have to argue that …



Invite questions:
Does anyone have a question …? / Are there any other questions?


Respond to questions:
That’s a good question, because …

Transcript
Vocabulary
the chances are (that) it is likely that. E.g. The chances are you won't have to pay.

instil something (in/into somebody): to gradually make somebody feel, think or behave in a particular way over a period of time. E.g. to instil confidence/discipline/fear into somebody.

pass something on (to somebody): to give something to somebody else, especially after receiving it or using it yourself. E.g. Pass the book on to me when you've finished with it. I passed your message on to my mother. Much of the discount is pocketed by retailers instead of being passed on to customers.

engage in something/ engage somebody in something (formal) to take part in something; to make somebody take part in something. E.g. Even in prison, he continued to engage in criminal activities. She tried desperately to engage him in conversation.

endow somebody/something with something: to give something to somebody/something. E.g. to endow somebody with a responsibility

inborn: an inborn quality is one that you are born with. Innate. E.g. Some people have an inborn tendency to put on weight.

come of/from something: to be the result of something. E.g. I made a few enquiries, but nothing came of it in the end. Come of/from doing something That comes of eating too much!

the floor [singular] the part of a building where discussions or debates are held, especially in a parliament; the people who attend a discussion or debate. E.g. Opposition politicians registered their protest on the floor of the House. We will now take any questions from the floor.

Ex 7A
E.g.
For: they would learn basic skills such as reading and writing more quickly 

Against: Children need time to develop through play before they start school.

Ex 8A

KEY
The writer suggests that teaching a young child to play a musical instrument will offer them huge benefits in their later life, perhaps helping them to develop other skills, such as reasoning and problem-solving, but certainly enabling them to broaden their understanding and appreciation of the world.
 
Vocabulary

unsubstantiated: /ˌʌnsəbˈstænʃieɪtɪd/ not proved to be true by evidence. Unsupported. E.g. an unsubstantiated claim/rumour, etc.

soothe somebody : /suːð/ to make somebody who is anxious, upset, etc. feel calmer. E.g. The music soothed her for a while.

have a feel for something: to have an understanding of something or be naturally good at doing it. E.g. She has a real feel for languages.

Monday, 28 October 2013

Speakout Advanced p 28. Intelligence and Ability & Challenges and Motivation. Extra Speaking

  Intelligence and Ability. Extra Speaking 

  Challenges and Motivation. Extra Speaking

 

Speakout Advanced p 28. Vanessa Mae on The Mail. Extra Reading

My mother hit me and made me kowtow to her... on my knees: Vanessa Mae reveals how her strict tiger mother slapped her face to improve her violin playing


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2608598/My-mother-hit-kowtow-knees-Vanessa-Mae-reveals-strict-tiger-mother-slapped-face-improve-violin-playing.html#ixzz30LuOgWjP

kowtow (to somebody/something) /ˌkaʊˈtaʊ/ (informal, disapproving) to show somebody in authority too much respect and be too willing to obey them. Her pride wouldn’t allow her to kowtow to anyone.


tiger mother: a very strict mother who makes her children work hard in order to be very successful at school, etc., thought to be typical of mothers in China and East Asia. E.g. Being raised by a tiger mother to me means as a child, I wasn't given the freedom to make my own decisions. 

Speakout Advanced p 28. The Making of Me: Vanessa Mae. Extra listening

Speakout Advanced p 28. The Magic of Me: Vanessa-Mae. Listening

1. Vanessa-Mae has a fortune (1)__________________ thirty million pounds.
2. The violin has (2)_____________________ her life.
3. From her early years as a musical (3.1)_____________ to the (3.2)___________ of money and (3.3)_______________, Vanessa’s entire life has been (3.4)_______________ by music. However,  for fifteen years her mother helped to (3.5)__________ her career.
4. She was always made to appreciate that the love her mother had for her was (4)___________.
5. Vanessa wants to find out whether her musical success (5)_______________ her or her mother.
6.  "I need to (6.1)_____________  whether I was born to play the violin or if I (6.2)____________________playing the violin. Was it nature or (6.3)_____________ that played a bigger part?"
7. Vanessa will be observed by psychologists and (7)_______________ the limit.
8. Vanessa wanted to know if she had become the person she became because she (8) _______________ to be a violinist.
9. She was (9)_______________ many different things, therefore she could not get to know who she was or make any choices until later in life.
10. Earlier in her career she thought that what set her (10)_____________  another violinist with the same amount of training was nature.
11. Now she is not  (11.1)_____________ to recognize that it was her blood, her (11.2)________ and her tears that brought her where she is today. Therefore she has decided to (11.3)_____________ fifty percent one, and fifty percent the other.


KEY
1. in excess of
excess: /ɪkˈses/ E.g. The increase will not be in excess of (= more than) two per cent.


2.  basically dictated
dictate: to control or influence how something happens. Determine. E.g. When we take our vacations is very much dictated by Greg's work schedule. It's generally your job that dictates where you live now.


3.1. prodigy: /ˈprɒdədʒi/ a young person who is unusually intelligent or skilful for their age. E.g. a child/an infant prodigy. A musical prodigy.


3.2. glamour: /ˈɡlæmə(r)/ the attractive and exciting quality that makes a person, a job or a place seem special, often because of wealth or status. E.g. hopeful young actors and actresses dazzled by the glamour of Hollywood. Now that she's a flight attendant, foreign travel has lost its glamour for her.


3.3. celebrity: /səˈlebrəti/ 1 (also informal celeb) [countable] a famous person. E.g. TV celebrities. 2 [uncountable] the state of being famous. Fame. E.g. Does he find his new celebrity intruding on his private life?



3.4. shaped
to shape: help determine. To have an important influence on the way that somebody/ something develops. E.g. His ideas had been shaped by his experiences during the war. She had a leading role in shaping party policy.



3.5. forge
forge something: /fɔːdʒ/ to put a lot of effort into making something successful or strong so that it will last. Sp. forjar. E.g. She forged a new career as a poet and songwriter. A move to forge new links between management and workers. Strategic alliances are being forged with major European companies. She forged a new career in the music business. They forged a lead in the first 30 minutes of the game.




4. conditional
conditional (on/upon something) depending on something. E.g. Payment is conditional upon delivery of the goods (= if the goods are not delivered the money will not be paid).



5. was down to
be down to somebody/something to be caused by a particular person or thing. E.g. She claimed her problems were down to the media.



6.1. work out: to find the answer to something. Solve. E.g. to work out a problem. I couldn't work out where the music was coming from. I can't work out what to do.



6.2. was talked into 
talk somebody into/out of something: to persuade somebody to do/not to do something. E.g. I didn't want to move abroad but Bill talked me into it. Talk somebody into/out of doing something She tried to talk him out of leaving.



6.3. nurture: /ˈnɜːtʃə(r)/ care, encouragement and support given to somebody/something while they are growing. Sp. crianza, educación. E.g. The study seems to show that nurture is more important than nature in shaping a child's character and future prospects. These plants will need careful nurture.



7. be pushed to
push somebody/yourself to make somebody work hard. E.g. The music teacher really pushes her pupils. Lucy should push herself a little harder. She will be pushed to the limit.



8. was groomed
groom: to prepare or train somebody for an important job or position. Groom somebody (for/as something) Our junior employees are being groomed for more senior roles. Groom somebody to do something The eldest son is being groomed to take over when his father dies.



9. cut off from
cut somebody/something off (from somebody/something) [often passive] to prevent somebody/ something from leaving or reaching a place or communicating with people outside a place. E.g. The army was cut off from its base. She feels very cut off living in the country. He cut himself off from all human contact.



10. apart from
set somebody/something apart (from somebody/something): to make somebody/something different from or better than others. E.g. Her elegant style sets her apart from other journalists.



11.1. ashamed



11.2. sweat



11.3. shift towards
Shift: to change your opinion of or attitude towards something, or change the way that you do something. E.g. We need to shift the focus of this debate. Shift something (from…) (to/towards/toward…) The new policy shifted the emphasis away from fighting inflation. The future of commerce is going to shift towards the internet.